According to the Global CCS Institute
CCS encompasses an integrated suite of technologies that can prevent large quantities of CO2 from being released in the atmosphere from the use of fossil fuels. It is a proven technology and has been in safe, commercial operation for 45 years.
All components of CCS are proven technologies that have been used for decades at a commercial scale. Indeed, CCS technology is being used around the world in different ways and is already cutting greenhouse gas emissions.
How CCS works
CCS involves three major steps; capturing CO2 at the source, compressing it for transportation and then injecting it deep into a rock formation at a carefully selected and safe site, where it is permanently stored.
- Capture: The separation of CO2 from other gases produced at large industrial process facilities such as coal and natural-gas-fired power plants, steel mills, cement plants and refineries.
- Transport: Once separated, the CO2 is compressed and transported via pipelines, trucks, ships or other methods to a suitable site for geological storage.
- Storage: CO2 is injected into deep underground rock formations, usually at depths of 1/3 of a mile or more.
Because CCS can achieve significant CO2 emission reductions, it is considered a key option within the portfolio of approaches required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.